I really like the idea of structuring my
init.el file with orgmode. Now I wonder if this would also work with other configuration files like
If you mean via Org's tangle features then yes, it lets you tangle out arbitrary files, and will even syntax highlight them if you have the proper major-modes installed.
As an example, my dotfiles repo contains a single Org file that tangles out to all of my configurations and looks darn nice when exported.