I am trying to assemble a list of features that work out of the box on Linux but will fail on a standard installation without addinng additional executables or DLLs, or are not implemented at all for Windows.
Specifically, I am interested in features supported directly by the emacs lisp API of a clean installation, potentially after updating packages from ELPA but not installing any new packages explicitly. Since there are inofficial binary releases like Emacs-w64, the official releases from gnu.org should be the relevant point of reference.
More explicitly, this includes the following groups:
Features lacking Windows-compatibility at the C-source level.
The one I ran into is ImageMagick support for transforming images without calling exeternal commands, which silently fails on Windows.
Libraries Emacs is normally linked against for binary Windows releases, whose corresponding DLL files are not shipped with Emacs (e.g.
dynamic-library-alistshould give a complete list of such libraries. Unless it is incomplete, or it may include entries for libraries that the binary was not actually compiled against, nothing should have to be said about these.
Libraries which Emacs could be linked against, but isn't in the binary release (if there are any).
Ubiquitous Linux tools which are not present on Windows, which the standard emacs-lisp API and builtin interactive commands depend on.
The most important examples are probably
Executables required by extensions that are wide-spread enough to be now bundled with Emacs releases.
An example would be
org-mode, whose export feature requires a LaTeX distribution. It is also an example for the unimplemented ImageMagick dependence.