Is there an easy way to see what modes are currently operating in a buffer? And have a list of their names?
Almost every mode puts some kind of text in the mode line, which is the line of text at the bottom of every buffer. You can also type
C-h m (or
M-x describe-mode)to get long-form documentation about every mode that is currently active. This includes their names as well as all of their keybindings.