When tangling, I want to use/refer to code-blocks from different file.

Suppose /tmp/1.org file below that contains code block named code_block_in_1_org (that I want to use later).

* This is ~1.org~ file:

#+name: code_block_in_1_org
#+begin_src python :noweb yes
import pandas as pd

And then, I want to use code_block_in_1_org block in different file (/tmp/2.org - the_final_code_block):

#+INCLUDE: "/tmp/1.org"           

* This is the ~/tmp/2.org~ file
#+caption: Local Code Block
#+name: code_block_local
#+begin_src python :noweb yes
import numpy as np

#+caption: The Final Code Block
#+name: the_final_code_block
#+begin_src python :results output :tangle output.py :noweb yes
<<code_block_in_1_org>>      # referencing from 1.org
<<code_block_local>>         # referencing from within 2.org

When I export 2.org to LaTeX PDF everything works fine: enter image description here

Problem: when I org-babel-tangle in 2.org the output output.py file doesn't contain the code_block_in_1_org part:

# referencing from 1.org
import numpy as np         # referencing from within 2.org


  • How to refer to code-block from different file when tangling the code?
  • And, why does it work when Exporting PDF, and not when tangling?
  • 1. I don't know for sure, but I don't see any evidence that it is possible; 2. because #+INCLUDEs are processed on export, but are not processed on tangle - I'd suggest that you send an RFE to the mailing list. One possible hack is to proceed as in export: copy the file contents into a temp buffer, process the includes in the temp buffer and then tangle from that buffer to the output file.
    – NickD
    Apr 22, 2023 at 13:35
  • Sorry, what's a RFE? (is this a tag for Request-Feature?)
    – Garid
    Apr 22, 2023 at 16:10
  • 1
    Sorry -RFE stands for "Request For Enhancement".
    – NickD
    Apr 22, 2023 at 17:52
  • 1
    I've sent it, If anyone interested, you can see it here
    – Garid
    Apr 22, 2023 at 19:42

1 Answer 1


Apparently this can be done via org-babel-lob-ingest functions. (see the mail reply).

From manual-16.12:

For any user to add code to the library, first save the code in regular code blocks of an Org file, and then load the Org file with org-babel-lob-ingest, which is bound to C-c C-v i.

Just adding /tmp/1.org via M-x org-babel-lob-ingest, or (org-babel-lob-ingest "/tmp/1.org") will load code-blocks in that file. And then, tangling /tmp/2.org does include code-blocks from the other file.

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