Say that emacs throws some error that I don't understand. Or maybe the error says "Symbol's value as variable is void: modes", but there are many occurrences of the symbol modes in my code, so I need some context. Can Emacs be configured to mention the line number of the lisp code so I can know what code is causing the error?

I have tried doing (setq stack-trace-on-error '(buffer-read-only)) and ran the perpetrating code in an effort to get a stack trace. No stack trace either.

I have also tried calling edebug-defun on my function and stepping through it. It is not until I step out of the function that the error is thrown.

(I am really not as interested in the cause of the particular error I am facing currently as I am in developing general debugging skills for elisp. Please advise on how I can gleam a line number, or a sexp, or a stack trace from an error.)

  • Did you already try non-nil debug-on-error? Doesn't that help? – Drew Feb 1 '15 at 6:05
  • Nope. That doesn't seem to do anything. (After I set it to t and then proceed to eval an error-throwing function.) – Jackson Feb 1 '15 at 6:26
  • Probably what happens is that some other code catches the error and just prints the error message. Also check that debug-ignored-errors doesn't list any errors. If you set debug-on-signal to non-nil, and it was the case the other code handled the error, you will be able to get the error before the other code did. – wvxvw Feb 1 '15 at 6:55
  • I am currently in a similar situation and was reading this question. I am wondering about stack-trace-on-error. This variable is not documented in Emacs 25.1. – Matthias Feb 8 '17 at 14:07

Emacs provides a good amount of debugging facilities including M-x toggle-debug-on-error, M-x toggle-debug-on-quit, debug on signal (which can be used by sending USR2 to Emacs from outside), debug-on-entry (of a function), debug-on-message (when seeing a specific regexp match of a message) and finally, debug itself as alternative to instrumenting a function with C-u C-M-x.

Both debug and edebug offer enough functionality to inspect the state of Emacs when evaluating the code that you're interested in, hit e and enter an expression.

However, while edebug jumps to the place in the instrumented function and therefore gives you a clue where to look (which is kind of silly since you already know what exactly you've instrumented), debug doesn't do this at all. I've pulled off a smaller hack after discovering that whenever debug evaluates a buffer, it emits the value of point associated with the error; in other words using this information on the buffer can give you a line number in the backtrace!

(with-eval-after-load 'debug
  (defun debugger-setup-buffer (debugger-args)
    "Initialize the `*Backtrace*' buffer for entry to the debugger.
That buffer should be current already."
    (setq buffer-read-only nil)
    (set-buffer-multibyte t)        ;Why was it nil ?  -stef
    (setq buffer-undo-list t)
    (let ((standard-output (current-buffer))
          (print-escape-newlines t)
          (print-level 8)
          (print-length 50))
    (goto-char (point-min))
    (delete-region (point)
                     (search-forward "\n  debug(")
                     (forward-line (if (eq (car debugger-args) 'debug)
                                       2    ; Remove implement-debug-on-entry frame.
    (insert "Debugger entered")
    ;; lambda is for debug-on-call when a function call is next.
    ;; debug is for debug-on-entry function called.
    (pcase (car debugger-args)
      ((or `lambda `debug)
       (insert "--entering a function:\n"))
      ;; Exiting a function.
       (insert "--returning value: ")
       (setq debugger-value (nth 1 debugger-args))
       (prin1 debugger-value (current-buffer))
       (insert ?\n)
       (delete-char 1)
       (insert ? )
      ;; Debugger entered for an error.
       (insert "--Lisp error: ")
       (prin1 (nth 1 debugger-args) (current-buffer))
       (insert ?\n))
      ;; debug-on-call, when the next thing is an eval.
       (insert "--beginning evaluation of function call form:\n"))
      ;; User calls debug directly.
       (insert ": ")
       (prin1 (if (eq (car debugger-args) 'nil)
                  (cdr debugger-args) debugger-args)
       (insert ?\n)))
    ;; After any frame that uses eval-buffer,
    ;; insert a line that states the buffer position it's reading at.
      (let ((tem eval-buffer-list))
        (while (and tem
                    (re-search-forward "^  eval-\\(buffer\\|region\\)(" nil t))
          (insert (format "Error at line %d in %s: "
                          (with-current-buffer (car tem)
                            (line-number-at-pos (point)))
                          (with-current-buffer (car tem)
          (pop tem))))

With this the original question in the title should be answered. As for your problem with getting a backtrace in the first place, I'm out of useful ideas.

  • Thanks for your help, but I still don't understand how to get the line number. M-x debug ...? Then what do I press? – Jackson Feb 7 '15 at 21:56
  • With this code you'll see a line number in backtraces made by debug, you can check by visiting a faulty elisp file, doing M-x toggle-debug-on-error and M-x eval-buffer, then a backtrace with a line number at the problematic position should pop up. – wasamasa Feb 7 '15 at 23:37
  • Will this work if you don't use eval-buffer? For example, if you just press a keyboard shortcut that runs a private command that fails and opens the debugger in the *Backtrace* buffer.. – Håkon Hægland Mar 16 '15 at 18:05
  • No, it won't. You get the function value of the symbol (which can either be a list or something byte-compiled) and that's pretty much it. – wasamasa Mar 16 '15 at 18:36

Maybe because it's 2018 now, but in my case, I only had to turn on debugging like wasamasa suggested: M-x toggle-debug-on-error

After this, M-x eval-buffer on my faulty Elisp file gave context by providing the position of the error, like this: Debugger entered--Lisp error: (invalid-read-syntax ")") eval-buffer() ; Reading at buffer position 523 [....]

M-x goto-char jumps to the error position: M-x goto-char 523

  • Nice find! It appears this has been added in 2017, back when they reworked that function to work on a list of backtrace items. – wasamasa Sep 11 '18 at 7:39

I've extended wasamasa's answer to include additional information:

  (let ((tem eval-buffer-list))
    (while (and tem
                (re-search-forward "^  eval-\\(buffer\\|region\\)(" nil t))
      (insert (apply 'format "Error at line %d, column %d (point %d) in %s\n"
                     (with-current-buffer (car tem)
                       (list (line-number-at-pos (point))
      (pop tem))))

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