I noticed in Org mode that #+title can be written in lowercase and uppercase. Is there a specific reason for capitalisation? Additionally, the colouring of these keywords varies. Some are grey, while others like #+title appear red. Is this a standard behaviour, or is it related to the theme being used?

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No specific reason for upper vs. lower case: the manual says: "Keywords and blocks are written in uppercase to enhance their readability, but you can use lowercase in your Org files."

The colors are influenced by the face assigned. Put your cursor on whatever keyword you are interested in and type C-u C-x =: that'll give you details on the character under the cursor, including the assigned face. For keywords like #+TITLE and #+AUTHOR the assigned face is org-document-info-keyword, whereas for others like #+OPTIONS, it is org-meta-line.

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