I know nothing about pdf-tools. But it sounds like you're just asking how to make Isearch's lazy highlighting persist after you stop searching.
If so, the answer to that is to set user option lazy-highlight-cleanup to nil. C-h v tells you:
lazy-highlight-cleanup is a variable defined in isearch.el.
Its value is t
I will give the same answer as @Drew, but phrased a little differently.
Your expression 《.+IJ》will match the first 《, then will match the minimum number of characters (because of the ?) until the IJ》 sequence.
You cannot use the "non-greediness" of the ? to un-match the first matching 《 in order to find a later one.
An expression you can use to do what ...
The problem is not about using non-greedy matching. It is about which chars you're matching. Specifically, you want to match 《 followed by any number of non-《 chars, followed by IJ》.
This is a regexp that finds that: 《[^《]+IJ》.
This is a typical operation, for searching text that has paired delimiters. For example, you do the same thing when searching ...