In git, if you hover the mouse over the mode line portion which starts "Git", you get more information such as the branch and update status.
Looks like you've asked about mode line customization before here and here, so you should understand how to set values in the mode line.
To get the status of the file, the function you want is:
If you want something that changes according to conditions then you pretty much need to use :eval, as in the second borrowed-code snippet.
There are several things wrong with your code. buffer-modified-p is a function, not a variable; you forgot to quote some things; etc. Try this, and then compare it carefully with your code:
I don't have much experience customizing the mode line, but the following seems working from here. It displays the status of column-number-mode using ON and OFF, when you click the text, the mode will be toggled and the text will be updated as well.
(let ((map (make-sparse-keymap)))
(define-key map [mode-line mouse-...
The relevant Bookmark+ code is in functions bmkp-bmenu-mode-line-string (which creates the string, with its faces) and bmkp-bmenu-mode-line (which displays that in the mode-line), in file bookmark+-bmu.el.
In the first of these functions you will see that the faces used are (1) bmkp-heading (for the sorting... information) and (2) one or more of these faces ...
You might try this (have not tested, because I don't installed
window-numbering, it found it in source code https://github.com/nschum/window-numbering.el/blob/master/window-numbering.el#L228.)
(setq-default mode-line-format (list
'(:eval (window-parameter (selected-window) 'ace-window-path))...
The short answer is that powerline and delight are not directly compatible; but I've made a change to delight (new version 1.04) to make such integration possible in general, and I've added a delight-powerline library which builds on top of that to handle powerline specifically.
Original answer follows...
Well I tried your config. My first comment is that ...
Just have a look at mode-line-modes in bindings.el. There you find for the major mode the value used in the following snippet:
`(:propertize ("" mode-name)
help-echo "Major mode\n\
mouse-1: Display major mode menu\n\
mouse-2: Show help for major mode\n\
mouse-3: Toggle minor modes"
Define a separate face, e.g., my-remote-buf, that you use to show remote buffers.
Set mode-line-buffer-identification to use that face when the buffer is remote:
(list (propertize (car mode-line-buffer-identification)