This does not quite reproduce what you want, but it's close.
Try setting org-agenda-use-time-grid to t. That will show you a time grid like this:
Weather: 6:34...... Sunrise
If you write
* TODO Quiz
DEADLINE: <2020-10-09 -5d>
on, Monday 2020-10-05, you should get some thing like
task: In 4 d.: TODO Quiz
in your agenda. Note that this will only appear on Monday. If on Sunday you look at the agenda for the next day, this entry will not appear.
Quoting from my comment:
Judging from the fact that the DONE face and the TODO face look the same above, I'm guessing that your org-todo-keywords are screwed up, so Org mode does not know that it is done.
So I checked your init file and I see this:
'((sequence "TODO(t)" "DONE(d)" "WAITING(w)" "...
In spite of appearances, that is not the file name: that is the category. You can set the category to something different (including the empty string), by adding a #+CATEGORY keyword at the beginning of your file. To set it to the emptry string, just say
See Categories in the manual.
CATEGORY can also be set at the header level via the ...
I'm not sure how this is handled in org-journal, by base orgmode provides datetree as an option for capture templates. These are created and inserted in sorted order. This allows you to define an appropriate capture element to add entries to your journal.org file.
From the org manual, (org) Template elements:
‘(file+olp+datetree "filename" [ "...